David T. Holyoak

Introduction -  Hornworts -  Liverworts -  Mosses -  Coastal influences -  Analysis -  Bibliography -  Acknowledgements -  Links -  CISFBR


Scope and aims

This Flora attempts to give a comprehensive account of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. Its predecessor, A Bryophyte Flora of Cornwall by Jean A. Paton (1969a), was a model study combining detailed fieldwork carried out by its author throughout the 1960s with critical reappraisal of almost all significant older herbarium specimens and literature. The present work builds on the good foundations provided by Mrs Paton, presenting results of intensive new field surveys I have carried out during 1993-2010 along with comparisons of the results of these with the data from the 1960s and earlier. The new data have been assembled by mapping in the 2 × 2 km squares of the National Grid (tetrads). To allow detailed comparisons, the older records have been extensively reviewed and these too are assigned to tetrads and mapped.

Coverage and treatment of old records

The species accounts in this Flora assign records to three date-classes: 1791-1949 (Very old), 1950-1992 (Old), and 1993-2010 (Recent). The break at the end of 1949 corresponds to the treatment of date-classes for the national bryophyte Atlas (Hill et al. 1991-1994). The 1950-1992 date-class covers the large majority of Mrs Paton's extensive fieldwork in Cornwall which began in earnest in 1960, and also the period over which she most actively checked and assembled records made by other bryologists visiting Cornwall. The latest period corresponds to my own fieldwork, which began soon after we moved to Cornwall in 1993 and largely ended after we moved to Portugal in 2009; my records here were therefore all made after publication of the first national bryophyte Atlas.

The reader is referred to Paton (1969a: 680-684) for an historical survey of bryology and bryologists in Cornwall. The earliest known records of bryophytes in Cornwall result from a few liverworts collected by E. Forster in 1791 (in BM), while the earliest moss specimens were collected by J.S. Tozer between 1820 and 1830 (in RAMM). The first systematic publications on Cornish bryophytes (Curnow 1843, Greenwood 1844, 1846) were followed during later decades of the nineteenth century by considerable bryological activity, especially by W. Curnow and J. Ralfs based in Penzance, with contributions elsewhere mainly by F. Brent, E.M. Holmes and R.V. Tellam (see Bibliography). Nevertheless, by the end of the nineteenth century the neighbourhood of Penzance and much of the Land's End Peninsula were the only districts in Cornwall that had been really well explored for bryophytes. Detailed studies on the Lizard peninsula and around St Ives only began in earnest with W.E. Nicholson's skilled work from about 1916 onwards. Many other regions remained poorly studied throughout the first half of the twentieth century, although F. Rilstone worked first in the Fowey-Perranporth-Looe region then between Newquay and Redruth. However, much of Bodmin Moor and large areas elsewhere did not receive much bryological study until Mrs Paton covered all 10-km squares (hectads) of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly during the 1960s.

Only limited use can be made of the nineteenth century bryophyte records and indeed all the pre-1950 records for comparisons with modern data. This is partly because of the patchy geographical coverage of the old records, but also because they were based on taxonomic treatments of species that have since often changed radically, and errors of identification were also common. Hence it is only those old records supported by voucher specimens that were used by Paton (1969a) and in the national bryophyte Atlas (Hill et al. 1991-1994). This sceptical tradition is maintained here. The Flora by Paton (1969a) was a condensed version of a much longer 'Typescript Flora' that gave fuller details of old records. The latter typescript has been used as a starting point in assembling old records for the present work, followed by searches for additional records using the full database of Cornish and Scilly records used for the national Atlas (43720 records in all: kindly made available from the Biological Records Centre, Wallingford [BRC]), and other literature. These sources mainly listed records of rare or uncommon species, along with the first records for species in each vice-county, and a selection of records for commoner species. All of the records have been reappraised for the present study, so that known errors and a small proportion of apparently dubious records have been removed; the original specimens have also been loaned for checking of numerous identifications which seemed doubtful. The preponderance of records of rare and notable species in the pre-1950 data remains, such that really common species such as Kindbergia praelonga or Rhynchostegium confertum are badly under-represented. However, little useful purpose would be served by spending many weeks checking the old herbarium material for the common species, since many of their recorded localities are vague and the geographical coverage is anyway very patchy.

Recording of bryophytes using squares of the National Grid began in the early 1960s. Localities for records from before then have been assigned to tetrads and included in the present study only when: (a) the place name given is reasonably unambiguous, (b) the place can be confidently assigned to a single tetrad, or at any event to one of no more than four adjacent tetrads, (c) there is no reason to believe that the collector used place names in a careless manner. The County of Cornwall Reference of Place Names (prepared for use by the Fire Brigade, reprinted 1970) was valuable both in locating place names and spotting those that are ambiguous. Records from 'The Lizard' or 'Land's End' have not been used because it is often clear that the whole of each peninsula might have been involved. For similar reasons, Tellam's records of 31 species labelled 'St Minver' have all been ignored since the list includes coastal and dune species some of which must have been collected 4 km or more from St Minver (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, and a specimen of Trichostomum crispulum shamelessly recorded as from 'St Minver Sands'). Where a grid intersection passes through a named place the records were always assigned to the same tetrad unless a good reason exists to place them elsewhere. Thus 'Penzance' records were assigned to SW43Q, 'Truro' to SW84H (but, e.g., 'coast near Penzance' was assigned to SW42U). In the end though, it must be appreciated that while some Very old records had the localities pinpointed (e.g. 'Clodgy Moor' or 'Trengwainton Carn') others (such as the oft-repeated 'near Penzance') are rather vague. Hence no significance can usually be attached to the presence of Very old records in tetrads adjacent to the modern records rather than in exactly the same places.

Recording by Mrs Paton was organised from its outset to cover the 10-km squares (hectads) of the National Grid, partly for use in the Cornish Flora, but also as a contribution to recording for the national Atlas. Fortunately her records were kept with much greater detail than the minimum needed for recording species in each hectad, such that separate species lists were kept on field recording sheets for every locality, and each locality was marked on the 1:63360 map sheet. For the present study all ca 38000 records were assigned to tetrads and copied onto standard recording sheets (one for each tetrad), using current nomenclature. In cases of doubt, the marked map and other information recorded were usually sufficient to place records unambiguously within one tetrad, or at most two adjoining tetrads. In several cases of uncertainty Mrs Paton remembered where the plants were recorded, so in the end only a few records were disregarded because they could not be assigned to a tetrad. Only a synthesis of these data was passed to BRC for the national Atlas (and thence incorporated into the BRC database), only a summary list of hectads was published by Paton (1969a) [and only this summary was then incorporated into the ERICA database of the former Cornish Biological Records Unit] and the data for only the richer localities was synthesised by N.G. Hodgetts and A.E. Newton in the unpublished Bryophyte Site Register for Cornwall [BSRC] (Nature Conservancy Council, 1987). Hence the original data from Mrs Paton was always used for her records and not the BRC, ERICA or BSRC versions of it, all of which are incomplete and all of which also contain a small proportion of errors of transcription.

Recording since 1993

My own recording of bryophytes began soon after moving to Cornwall in July 1993 and has been carried out with breaks of no more than about two months at any one time up to late 2006, then intermittently until 1st April 2010. During 1993-1995 bryophytes increasingly replaced vascular plants as the focus of my recording activities in Cornwall, but until 1995 only mosses were recorded and these only in West Cornwall (vice-county 1).

Encouragement and good tuition from Mrs Paton led to recording of liverworts alongside the mosses from late 1995 onwards and occasional forays into East Cornwall (vc2) became more regular from about 1998. Long trips away from home to carry out survey work in Ireland and elsewhere from 1999-2009 reduced the amount of time available for fieldwork in Cornwall, but around 50 tetrads were surveyed in most years mainly during the winter months.

Increasing experience of bryophytes in Cornwall and elsewhere has made my field recording more efficient. This has partly been due to increased knowledge of where to seek particular species, but also to an understanding of which species can be safely identified in the field and which need microscopical checking. Odd looking plants of almost all species and many of those from unusual habitats have regularly been checked microscopically and compared with herbarium material. In addition, all material I have recorded for certain genera has been checked microscopically (Andreaea, Anthoceros, Cephalozia except C. bicuspidata, Cephaloziella, Cynodontium, Drepanocladus and allied genera, Ephemerum, most Fossombronia, Gymnostomum, Gyroweisia, Heterocladium, Jungermannia, Kurzia, Leiocolea, Lejeunea, Leptobarbula, most Marsupella, Palustriella, Philonotis, small Plagiochila, Pleuridium, Radula, Rhabdoweisia, Riccardia, many Scapania, Schistidium, Sematophyllum, Solenostoma except some S. gracillimum, Weissia, Zygodon).

Much material of many other genera has also been checked microscopically although certain taxa are safely identified with a hand-lens (Atrichum, Brachytheciastrum, Brachythecium, Bryum, Campyliadelphus, Campylium, Campylopus, Cratoneuron, Dichodontium, Dicranella, Dicranum, Didymodon, Ditrichum, Entosthodon, Eurhynchium, Fissidens, Fontinalis, Grimmia, Hedwigia, Hygrohypnum, Hypnum, Isothecium, Leucobryum, Orthotrichum, Oxyrrhynchium, Plagiomnium, Plagiothecium, Pohlia, Polytrichastrum, Polytrichum, Racomitrium, Rhynchostegiella, Rhynchostegium, Sciuro-hypnum, Scleropodium, Sphagnum, Syntrichia, Thuidium, Tortella, Tortula, Trichostomum, Ulota).

Certain habitats have been more thoroughly searched than others. Surveys of bryophytes on former metalliferous mine sites carried out mainly for English Nature (Holyoak 2000) have led to particularly thorough investigation of this habitat, while detailed studies for Plantlife on Dendrocryphaea lamyana, Petalophyllum ralfsii and Lejeunea mandonii, and for E.N. on Jamesoniella undulifolia and Marsupella profunda have resulted in good coverage, respectively, of the banks of the River Tamar, dune-slacks, crags of serpentinite, mires and china-clay spoil. Nevertheless, efforts have been made to cover all bryophyte habitats at all times of the year. Except for coastal tetrads containing little land, a minimum of two hours intensive fieldwork was normal in each tetrad and double this in the richest ones.

At least one specimen and more often several specimens of every species I have recorded in Cornwall or Scilly has been kept in my herbarium (DTH). Some duplicate material has already been donated to NMW. Some duplicates from the Isles of Scilly have also been given to the Isles of Scilly Museum (Hugh Town: IOS). Voucher specimens for new vice-county records resulting from my fieldwork have been checked by the British Bryological Society Recorder of Hepatics or Recorder of Mosses and these specimens are lodged in BBSUK. Mrs Paton's extensive herbarium with much important Cornish material is now housed mainly at E (with some material also at BBSUK, IOS, OXF).

Presentation of data

This study covers all of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. West Cornwall and Scilly comprise vice-county 1, East Cornwall is vice-county 2. A small area of modern Cornwall (South Wheatley and North Petherwin to Yeolmbridge) is in vice-county 4 (North Devon) but included in the present study as it is almost surrounded to north and south by land in vc 2. The vice-county boundaries are described in detail by Dandy (1969), his account being reproduced with helpful maps in Atkinson et al. (2000).

An attempt was made to record the bryophytes of all (approximately 1072) tetrads in Cornwall and Scilly separately, however little land they contain. The practice of adding data from coastal squares with very little land to those of the closest square with more land has long since been abandoned by biological recorders, but some older bryophyte data (for hectads) that were treated in this way have been reinstated in the correct squares.

The bulk of the present Flora consists of a Text file giving a systematic list of all the species of hornworts, liverworts and mosses, with accompanying Maps (in a separate folder) showing the distribution by tetrads of each species. Records from 1791-1949, 1950-1992 and 1993-2010 are superimposed on the same map, allowing detailed assessment of changes in the status of species. Text for each species gives the national status, the earliest records in vc1 and vc2, more or less detailed notes on habitats and other aspects of ecology of the species and a summary of both vegetative and sexual reproduction in the county. In addition notes may be given on synonyms, any identification or taxonomic problems, the pattern of distribution in Cornwall compared to that in Britain as a whole and evidence of changes in status.

Photographs (in a separate folder) illustrate a selection of characteristic species and their habitats. 616 images taken by the author were mainly photographed with a small digital camera (Nikon Coolpix 995 or 4500). In addition there are five photos from Dr D. Callaghan (Cephaloziella integerrima, Conardia compacta, Riccia bifurca, Telaranea europaea, Tortula wilsonii), three from Dr S.R. Edwards (Douinia ovata and two of Cyclodictyon laetevirens) and 132 from Dr M. Lueth.

Paton (1969a) gives an introduction from a bryological viewpoint to the geography, geology, soils and climates of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, followed by short accounts of the characteristic bryophytes of certain habitats and their role in the vegetation. French, Murphy & Atkinson (1999) give fuller accounts of the region from a botanical viewpoint in the introduction to their Flora of Cornwall.


Introduction and abbreviations

Delimitation and nomenclature of taxa are based on the latest Census Catalogue of the British Bryological Society (Hill et al. 2008). Nomenclature, delimitation of taxa and synonyms also take into account the publications by Blockeel & Long (1998), Corley et al. (1981), Corley & Crundwell (1991), Corley & Hill (1981), Grolle & Long (2000). Hill et al. (1991, 1992, 1994), Paton (1969a, 1999), Schumacker & Vána (2000) and Smith (1978, 1990, 2004) and sometimes other more recent research literature.

The heading for each taxon contains the following information (†Threat categories are based on the revised list by Hodgetts 2011, replacing those in the British Red Data Book by Church et al. 2001).

ALIEN           Thought to be an introduced species in British Isles

CR                  Critically Endangered †

EN                  Endangered †

LS                   Locally Scarce (taxa recorded post-1950 from four or fewer sites in Cornwall

                        or Isles of Scilly, but which are not NR or NS)

NR                  Nationally Rare (recorded post-1950 in 1–15 hectads in Britain, mainly following list by Preston

                        2010, with data on infraspecific taxa from other sources)

NS                   Nationally Scarce (recorded post-1950 in 16–100 hectads in Britain,

                        following list by Preston 2006 with additions by Preston 2010: 33, i.e.

                        excluding recent additions to British list and most infraspecific taxa)

S                      Recorded in Isles of Scilly (see Paton & Holyoak 2005)

s. l.                   sensu lato, i.e. aggregate species (comprising two or more taxa)

s. str.                sensu stricto

S8                    On Schedule 8 of Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981

VU                  Vulnerable †

1                      Recorded in mainland vc1 [excludes Isles of Scilly]

2                      Recorded in vc2

vc1                  West Cornwall and Isles of Scilly (vice-county 1)

vc2                  East Cornwall (vice-county 2)

[ ]                     Pre-1950 records only

{ }                    Recorded only as weed of horticulture

Each species account gives information in the following sequence:


see note above.


A note summarises the European distribution as a whole, coded as a Biogeographic 'element' (cited from Hill et al. 2007, which is based largely on the detailed account by Hill & Preston 1998), e.g. 'Temperate Oceanic' or 'Mediterranean-Atlantic European'.


(marked*) for vice-county *1 or *2, or updated records (for taxa unrecorded for fifty or more years, marked +1 or +2.


All data refer strictly to author's observations in Cornwall and the Isles of scilly [C&S], unless otherwise noted. Available data are briefly summarised for rare species. For those that are commoner, information is given on the following topics: growth form (i.e. tufts, turfs, cushions, mats, wefts: adopting terminology of Hill et al. 2007), substrate types, water relations, preferences for insolated or shaded sites; main kinds of habitats occupied; any records of unusual habitats. In many cases where a diversity of habitats has been recorded the field notes are merely listed. This avoids rather glib summaries stating, e.g., 'wet places, shaded or unshaded, acidic or basic', when the bryophyte involved is nevertheless much less common than such a description might imply. Although generalised descriptions of habitat parameters are shorter and easier to understand than lists from field data, they can be seriously misleading when a taxon is later found to consist of several cryptic species each having different ecological preferences, as is proving to be the case with some of our bryophytes now molecular data are becoming available (e.g. Aneura pinguis s. l.).


All data refer strictly to the author's observations in C&S, unless otherwise noted. Associated plants (especially bryophytes) are noted, the lists often being first of 'Common associates' then of 'other associates'. Associates were defined as plants growing in immediate contact (i.e. normally touching the species in question, not merely species present 'nearby'). For relatively common bryophytes the lists are intended only to be indicative of the usual or commoner associates, not comprehensive. Scientific or English names of vascular plants mainly follow Stace (2010), with authors given only for those not included in his Flora. Generally, English names are used for familiar trees and shrubs, scientific names for the remainder of the flora.


All data refer strictly to author's observations in C&S, unless otherwise noted. Occurrence of bulbils, gemmae, tubers, deciduous leaves or other propagules is briefly noted.


All data refer strictly to author's observations in C&S, unless otherwise noted. Sexuality (dioicous, autoicous, synoicous, paroicous, etc.) is sometimes noted based on Hill et al. (2007) or a reference that is cited. = with sporophytes (even very immature or very old). Only four categories are used for frequency of occurrence of sporophytes: Common (present on 10-100% of occurrences of taxon), Frequent (on 1-10%), Occasional (on 0.1-1 %), Rare (on < 0.1%). Generalisations like these are only attempted where taxon itself has reasonably large number of records. Additional details are given for rare taxa or where sporophytes were seen <5 times in total. Normally records of capsules in each month (1 = January, 12 = December) are summarised as Immature, Dehiscing or Dehisced; exceptional or unusual records and those based on very few capsules are given in square brackets. For cleistocarpous capsules of some mosses records are given as Immature and Large immature capsules. For many liverworts occurrence of perianths is recorded in similar way to capsules. Months are summarised as, e.g. 3-6, only when there are records for all intervening months (thus, 3-6 = March, April, May and June).

Additional information on some species may consider:


Given mainly where changes in taxonomy have affected distributional data, e.g. newly described or newly recognised taxa, or those notorious for being misidentified or where the characters used for identification have changed over the years.


A brief summary of the range in Britain and Ireland ('B.I.') may be given, mainly based on Hill, Preston & Smith (1991-1994) and Hill et al. (2008); references to literature are only given for sources additional to these. Comments on the range in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (C&S) are sometimes given and intended mainly to amplify or explain the data shown on the tetrad map. Where relevant, 'Status' then considers evidence of changed abundance or range in C&S since the 1960s (sometimes mentioning a numerical Change index: see the final chapter); brief references to changes elsewhere in B.I. are also added where appropriate.


BBS                British Bryological Society

B.I.                  Great Britain and Ireland

BRC                Biological Records Centre, Wallingford

Bull.                 Bulletin of the British Bryological Society

C&S                Cornwall and Isles of Scilly

CC                   Census Catalogue of BBS

cfr                    with sporophytes

comm.             communicated by [initials of person]

conf.                Determination confirmed by [initials of person]

cper                 with perianths

CWT               Cornwall Wildlife Trust

det.                  Determined by [initials of person]

Exc.                 Excursion [Field Meeting]

HWST             high-water spring tide

J. Bryol.           Journal of Bryology

JNCC              Joint Nature Conservation Committee

leg.                  Collected by [initials of person]

NVC               National Vegetation Classification (see Rodwell 1991a-2000)

pen.                 peninsula

R.                    River

redet.               reidentified

s. l.                   sensu lato, i.e. aggregate species (comprising two or more taxa)

s. str.                sensu stricto (cf. s. l.)

Scilly               Isles of Scilly

SEM                scanning electron microscope

syn.                  synonym

Trans.              Transactions of the British Bryological Society

t.s.                   transverse section

vc1                  Vice County 1 (West Cornwall, including Scilly)

vc2                  Vice County 2 (East Cornwall)

µm                   micron (0.001 mm)     

1-12                 Months, when discussing capsules (see above)

=                      Correct name of taxon

*                      First record in vc1, vc2

+                      Updated record  in vc1 or vc2 [where published and none recorded for > 50 years]

Abbreviations (initials) of persons; with earliest and latest dates of records entered; dates are lacking for persons not known to have collected significant specimens in Cornwall who are listed as referees, etc.; 'active' means active in Cornwall or Scilly):

ACC                A.C. Crundwell† (1923-2000; active 1962-1977)

ACS                Alex C. Smith [of Diss, Norfolk]

AF                   Miss A. Fry (active 1910)

AG                  A. Greenwood† (active 1843-1852)

AJES               A.J.E. Smith (active 1959-1962)

AL                         A. Ley† (pre 1900)

ARP                A.R. Perry (active 1987, 2000)

AS                   A. Sutton (active 1922)

AW                 A. Wilson

BE                   B. Edwards (active 1997)

BS                   Miss B. Saunders (active 1961)

BT                   Miss B. Tonkin (active 1998-2008)

BW                  Ms B. Wheeler (active 2001)

CAJ                 Rev. C.A. Johns† (active 1838-ca 1860)

CCT                C.C. Townsend (active 1957-2000)

CDP                C.D. Preston (active 1980-2005)

CEL                Miss C.E. Larter† (active 1901)

CHB                Rev. C.H. Binstead† (1862-1941; active 1926)

CJN                 Ms C.J. Neil (active 1998)

CPH                C.P. Hurst† (active 1916-1933)

CSR                Mrs Christine S. Rieser (active 2000)

DAJ                 D.A. Jones†

DAN               D.A. Newman (active 1985)

DAP                D.A. Pearman (active 2005)

DAR               D.A. Ratcliffe† (active 1983)

DC                  D. Callaghan (active 2010-2012)

DEC                D.E. Coombe (active 1958)

DFC                D.F. Chamberlain (active 1964)

DGC               D.G. Catcheside (active 1929)

DGL                D.G. Long (active 1979-2000)

DTH                D.T. Holyoak [b. 1949] (active 1993-2010)

DW                 D. Wrench (active 2000)

EAW               Miss E.A. Warren† (active 1833-1859)

ECW               E.C. Wallace† (1909-1986; active 1962-1982)

EDM               E.D. Marquand† (active 1879- ca 1884)

EF                   E.Forster† (active 1791)

EFW                E.F. Warburg† (active 1946-1962)

EL                   E.Lyell† (pre 1900)

EMH               E.M. Holmes† (active ca 1869-1906)

EML                Miss E.M. Lobley† (active 1950)

EMT                Mrs E.M. Tindall† (pre 1900)

EN                   Mrs E. Nyholm† (active 1962)

ERBL              E.R.B. Little (active 1963-1966)

ES                   Mrs E. Stackhouse† (active 1857-1865)

EVW               E.V. Watson† (active 1987)

EWJ                E.W. Jones† (1909-1992; active 1940-1962)

FB                   F. Brent† (active ca 1869)

FEM                F.E. Milsom (active 1932)

FJR                  F.J. Rumsey (active 1998-2002)

FR                   F. Rilstone† (active 1910-1949)

FRJ                  F.R. Jeffrey (active 2000-2009)

FRL                 F.R. Lammiman (active 2000)

FRo                 F. Rose† (active 1971-1998)

GAH               Mrs G.A. Holyoak (b. 1953; active 1996-2008)

GBS                G.B. Savery† (active 1908)

GC                  G. Castle (active 1986)

GED                G.E. Davies (active 1886)

GH                  G. Halliday (active 1965)

GHA               G.H. Allison (active 1936)

GPR                G.P. Rothero

GS                   G. Smith (active 2000)

HA                  H. Angwin†

HB                  H. Boyden† (active 1894-1904)

HBos               H. Boswell† (active 1884)

HHB               Mrs H.H. Birks (active 1966)

HHH               H.H. Harvey† (active 1920)

HHK               H.H. Knight† (1862-1944; active 1919-1930)

HJBB              H.J.B. Birks (active 1966)

HLKW            H.L.K. Whitehouse† (1917-2000; active 1950-1966)

HND               H.N. Dixon† (1861-1944; active 1886)

HvM                H. van Melick (active 1984)

HWM              H.W. Matcham (active 2000)

IMS                 I.M. Smith (active 1962)

JA                    Mrs J. Appleyard† (active 1960-1966)

JAP                 Mrs J.A. Paton (b. 1929; active 1959-2010)

JB                    J. Blackburn (active 2000)

JBD                 J.B. Duncan† (active 1928-1930)

JD                    J. Dransfield (active 1966)

JDE                 J.D. Enys† (ca 1860)

JDS                 J.D. Sleath (active 2000-2005)

JEB                 J.E. Bowman† (active pre 1880)

JGD                 J.G. Duckett (active 1969-2003)

JHA                 J.H. Adams (1953-1960)

JHGP              J.H.G. Peterken (1962)

JIH                  Miss Janice I. Hendey (active 2000)

JLH                 J.L. Harper (active 1950)

JR                    J. Ralfs†  [1807-1890; see Marquand 1891 for Obituary] (active 1838-1882)

JS                    J. Stackhouse† (active 1854-1861)

JSP                  J.S. Parker (active 1967)

JST                  J.S. Tozer† (active 1820-1852)

JV                    J. Vána

JWB                J.W. Bates (active 2000)

JWF                 Mrs J.W. Fitzgerald† (active 1966)

KL                   K. Lewis (active 1966)

KMC               Mrs K.M. Cocking (active 2000)

KPM               K. Preston-Mafham (active 1999-2002)

LHP                L.H. Pegler

LJC                 L.J. Cocks† (active pre 1900-1921)

MAW              M.A. Walton (active 2000)

MCFP             M.C.F. Proctor (active 2000)

MEN               Miss/Dr M.E. Newton (active 1966)

MFVC             M.F.V. Corley (active 1967)

MGM              M.G.MacFarlane (active 1958)

Miller               Miller† (active pre 1900)

MJH                Miss M.J. Harrison (active 1980)

ML                  M. Lawley (active 2000)

MOH               M.O. Hill (active 2000)

MP                  M. Pool (active 1996-2009)

NDS                N. De Sausmarez (active 2003-2006)

NFS                 N.F. Stewart (active 2000)

NGH               N.G. Hodgetts (active 1987-2009)

PAG                P.A. Gainey (active 1997-2006)

PDR                P.D. Read (active 1959)

PJW                 P.J. Wanstall (active 1950-1955)

PM                  P. Martin (active 1996)

PWR               P.W. Richards† (1908-1995; active 1924)

RAF                R.A. Finch† (active 1984-2005)

RCS                R.C. Stern (active 2000)

RDP                R.D. Porley (active 1989-2000)

RJF                  R.J. Fisk (active 2000)

RJM                Miss R.J. Murphy (active 1958-2000)

RL                   R. Lansdown (active 2006)

RVT                R.V. Tellam† (active 1872 -1897)

RWS               R.W. Smitham† (active 1904-1921)

SA                   S. Adams (active 2001-2002)

SDSB              S.D.S. Bosanquet (active 2000)

SD                   S. Davey (active 1999-2000)

SJPW              S.J.P. Waters (active 1962)

SRE                 S.R. Edwards (active 2001-2002)

SVOL             S.V. O'Leary (active 2000)

TGT                 T.G. Tutin† (active 1946)

THB                T.H. Blackstock

TL                   T.Laflin (active 1949-1967)

TLB                 T.L. Blockeel (active 2000)

UKD               Miss U.K. Duncan† (active 1958 ['1910-1962'; ? is 1910 correct)

VC                  Miss V. Cornwall (active 1961)

WAG              W.A. Glasson (pre 1900)

WB                  W. Borrer† (active ca 1843)

WC                  W. Curnow† (active 1842-1886)

WEN               W.E. Nicholson† (1866-1945; active 1907-1931, ? ca -1938)

Wise                Wise (between 1900 and 1950)

WM                 W. Mitten† (1819-1906; active 1883-1895)

WW                 W. Watson† (active 1921)

Of Herbaria (in bold type):

ABS                The Painter Herbarium, Aberystwyth

B                     The Guildhall, Bodmin

BBSUK          British Bryological Society, at National Museums and Galleries of WalesCardiff

BIRM             Department of Botany, University of Birmingham

BM                  Department of Botany, The Natural History Museum, London

                        [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]

BR                  Bruxelles, Belgium

CGE               Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge

CMM             Cartwright Memorial Hall, Bradford

DBN               Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland

DGS               Manx Museum, Douglas

DTH               private herbarium of D.T. Holyoak

E                     Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh

EWJ               Herb. E.W. Jones (now at BM and OXF)

EXR               Department of Botany, University of Exeter

G                    Geneva, Switzerland

GL                  Department of Botany, University of Glasgow

IOS                 Isles of Scilly Museum, St Mary's

J                      Jena, Germany

JGD                Private Herbarium of Prof. J.G. Duckett

LDS                Department of Botany, University of Leeds

MANCH        Manchester Museum, University of Manchester

NMW             National Museums and Galleries of Wales, Cardiff

NY                  New York Botanic Garden, New York, U.S.A.

OXF                Botany School, University of Oxford

PC                   Paris, France

PNZ                Museum of Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian Society

RAMM           Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter

SLBI               South London Botanical Institute

S-PA               Stockholm

TRU               Royal Institution of Cornwall, County Museum, Truro

TTN                Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton